Commissioning a new vessel allows operators to expand their fleet and increase profitability with additional resources but the design of a ship has a major impact on its subsequent performance and revenue-making capabilities. With increasing environmental regulations, such as the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), new-build ships must be designed with their environmental impact in mind.
What is the Energy Efficiency Design Index?
First introduced alongside Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plans (SEEMPs) in 2011, the EEDI regulations require new-build vessels to achieve a ‘minimum energy efficiency level per capacity mile’ (Resolution MEPC 203 (62), MARPOL Annex VI).
The EEDI measures design efficiency, as opposed to operational efficiency, and is the most important technical measure for new-build vessels (IMO). To comply with the EEDI, a ship must meet the requisite standard for its type and size, expressed in grams of CO2 per capacity mile (sometimes referred to as ‘transport work’ or ‘tonne mile’.).
Therefore, each ship has a:
- Required EEDI (the EEDI standard they must meet), and an;
- Attained EEDI (the actual EEDI rating the vessel is given).
Providing a ship’s Attained EEDI is equal to or better than its Required EEDI, it will be deemed compliant with the Energy Efficiency Design Index.
A complex formula is used to calculate a ship’s Required EEDI and Attained EEDI but, in simple terms, it can be expressed as follows:
How Are EEDI Regulations Implemented?
The EEDI increases the energy efficiency of the industry by setting required technical efficiency standards for new vessels based on an established reference line (baseline). Historical emissions data has been used to set this baseline and, according to EEDI regulations, new vessels must achieve a reduction in terms of percentage.
EEDI: In Practice
For example, gas carriers above 15,000 DWT were required to reduce CO2 emissions by 10% compared to the relevant segment baseline under phase 1 of the EEDI. When phase 2 of the EEDI was introduced, the requisite reduction percentage was 20% and now, under phase 3, gas carriers above 15,000 DWT must reduce CO2 emissions by 30% in comparison with the relevant baseline.
Although the EEDI has been in force for some time, its requirements have been strengthened incrementally with new phases being introduced every few years. With more vessels now subject to the Energy Efficiency Design Index and ships facing lower emissions output standards, it’s more important than ever for shipowners, shipyards and design houses to use the latest maritime technology to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions.
Phase 3 of the EEDI Brought Forward to April 2022
Originally, phase 3 of the EEDI was scheduled to come into force in 2025. In a bid to accelerate the decarbonization of the shipping industry, however, the IMO brought the implementation of Phase 3 forward to April 2022 and strengthened the regulations even further ((Resolution MEPC 324 (75); 2021 Revised Marpol Annex VI, Resolution MEPC 328 (76)).
Following the latest resolution, many vessels will need to meet enhanced emissions reductions. While there are various exclusions which may apply to specific vessels, the regulations broadly require the following reductions:
|Gas Carrier||20,000 DWT +||30%|
|Container Ship||200,000 DWT +||50%|
|120,000 - 200,000 DWT||45%|
|80,000 - 120,000 DWT||40%|
|40,000 - 80,000 DWT||35%|
|15,000 - 40,000 DWT||30%|
|10,000 - 15,000 DWT||15 - 30%|
|LNG Carrier||100,000 DWT +||30%|
|Cruise Passenger Ship (having non-conventional propulsion)||85,000 GT +||30%|
|25,000 - 85,000 GT||0 - 30%|
|General Cargo Ship||15,000 DWT +||30%|
|3,000 - 15,000 DWT||0 - 30%|
However, these aren’t the only types of vessels that will face increasingly stringent EEDI requirements. Set to come into force in 2025, a second iteration of Phase 3 demands the following reductions:
|PHASE 3 REDUCTION - 2025|
|Bulk Carrier||20,000 DWT +||30%|
|10,000 - 20,000 DWT||0 - 30%|
|Gas Carrier||10,000 - 15,000 DWT||30%|
|2,000 - 10,000 DWT||0 -30%|
|Tanker||20,000 DWT +||30%|
|4,000 - 20,000 DWT||0 - 30%|
|Refrigerated Cargo Carrier||5,000 DWT +||30%|
|3,000 - 5,000 DWT||0 - 30%|
|Combination Carrier||20,000 DWT +||30%|
|10,000 - 20,000 DWT||0 - 30%|
|Ro-Ro Cargo Ship (Vehicle Carrier)||10,000 DWT +||30%|
|Ro-Ro Cargo Ship||2,000 DWT +||30%|
|1,000 - 2,000 DWT||0 - 30%|
|Ro-Ro Passenger Ship||1,000 DWT +||30%|
|250 - 1,000 DWT||0 - 30%|
Meeting EEDI Requirements
As environmental regulations tighten across the board, it’s vital that shipowners use the latest innovations to achieve the requisite EEDI rating for their vessels. To date, various methods have been used to optimize vessel energy efficiency and, therefore, improve EEDI ratings, including:
- Reducing hull resistance
- Increasing propeller efficiency
- Slow steaming
- Low-carbon fuels
- Optimizing routes and operating patterns
As you can see, there are many ways to increase a ship’s energy efficiency and shipowners have been forced to steadily embrace more sustainable shipping methods in order to achieve EEDI compliance thus far. However, the acceleration of Phase 3 and the drive towards the decarbonization of the shipping industry (Economist Impact, 2021) means that additional solutions will need to be implemented.
As the EEDI is concerned with the energy efficiency of a ship’s technical design, rather than its operation (which is assessed via other measures, such as the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) and Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII), it follows that technical efficiency can be improved by using onboard technologies.
Furthermore, integrating new technologies into new-build ships can actually be far easier than retrofitting them onto existing vessels, which gives shipowners striving to achieve optimal EEDI ratings an advantage over those who are battling to achieve requisite EEXI ratings.
However, selecting the right onboard technologies is critical to improving energy efficiency, maintaining crew and passenger safety and achieving optimal vessel performance.
Waste Heat Recovery for EEDI Compliance
Although shipowners are using new forms of tech to improve the energy efficiency of new-build vessels, there is one type of technology that is often overlooked: waste heat recovery (WHR). Despite this, marine WHR can be used to successfully increase energy efficiency and, therefore, enable shipowners, shipyards and design houses to achieve Required EEDI ratings.
What Is Marine Waste Heat Recovery?
Marine waste heat recovery essentially means that onboard waste heat is captured, repurposed and used to generate clean, carbon-free electricity. This power is then used by the ship’s grid, which means it is less reliant on diesel-powered generators. As a result, less fuel is used and fewer CO2 emissions are released, which helps to enhance the EEDI rating of the vessel.
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Low-Temp vs High-Temp WHR
Onboard waste heat is produced at varying temperatures, and it is the temperature of the heat that determines how it can be used. To date, many energy-saving WHR solutions, such as economizers and boilers, have focused on utilizing high-temp onboard waste heat.
However, the majority of onboard waste heat is actually low temperature (80-120°C) and few solutions are aimed at repurposing this potentially valuable byproduct. By using low-temp WHR solutions based upon ORC technology on board new-build ships, however, the vessel’s overlooked low-temp waste heat can successfully be transformed into a sustainable asset.
While low-temp ORC waste heat recovery offers numerous benefits, there are specific advantages in relation to new-build vessels and EEDI shipping regulations, including:
Generate Clean Energy on All Vessels
Different types of vessels have varying needs, which means that one energy efficient solution may not be suitable for all ships. Furthermore, a vessel’s operational pattern and profile can affect the efficacy of onboard energy-efficient technology (Poulsen, Viktorelius et al, 2022).
However, all vessels produce waste heat, which means that marine WHR can be used on virtually all ships to increase energy efficiency. From cruise ships and Ro-Ro ships to cargo ships and containerships, the universal and ubiquitous nature of onboard waste heat makes ORC marine WHR a viable solution across segments and sizes. If solutions for low-temp ORC waste heat recovery, like Climeon HeatPower 300 Marine, are included, even more energy can be produced from the available heat.
At Climeon, we’re committed to increasing sustainability in shipping, which is why our ORC technology is designed with larger vessels in mind. For ships with an engine size exceeding 30MW and an available thermal energy of more than 1000kW, the Climeon HeatPower 300 Marine system can deliver meaningful emissions reductions and optimal efficiency.
Compatible with Other Solutions
As EEDI requirements and other environmental regulations become increasingly stringent, vessels typically need to use a combination of solutions to reduce emissions and increase energy efficiency. To achieve optimal performance, onboard energy efficient solutions must, therefore, be compatible with one another and provide enhanced energy saving when used in conjunction. Further, the energy saving solutions should not interfere with other necessary onboard equipment that utilizes low temperature waste heat, such as feed water preheating, freshwater generators and the vessel’s HVAC systems.
As ORC waste heat recovery technology, like Climeon HeatPower 300 Marine, can be used as a standalone solution or in addition to other waste heat recovery technology, it is an effective component of a new-build vessel’s technical design.
Modular and Scalable
Effective maritime energy efficient solutions must provide shipowners, shipyards and design houses with maximum flexibility, both in terms of integration and performance. While the acceleration of Phase 3 of the EEDI has strengthened regulations in the short-term, we can expect maritime emissions rules to become even more strict over time. (See, for example, possible Phase 4 requirements, IMO, 2019).
As vessels have an average lifespan of 25-30 years, the ships being built today will need to adhere to increasingly demanding regulations throughout their lifetime and energy-saving and emission-lowering technology must, therefore, be capable of future performance optimization.
When shipowners choose low-temp ORC waste heat recovery to achieve their Required EEDI rating, they retain the flexibility to enhance and increase their energy savings in the future.
As a scalable solution, Climeon HeatPower 300 Marine systems can be extended with additional modules, for example. This effectively increases the output of clean energy and significantly reduces both fuel consumption and carbon emissions.
Compact and Easy to Install
Onboard space is inevitably limited, regardless of how efficient or progressive a vessel’s design is. For energy saving technology to be viable within the shipping industry, it must, therefore, take up a minimal amount of space. Similarly, the installation and integration process must be streamlined to ensure swift setups and uninterrupted commissioning.
At Climeon, we understand the importance of designing compact, streamline onboard technology. Delivered as a single unit, our HeatPower 300 Marine system requires just five integration interfaces: a cold water source, a hot water source (waste heat), compressed air, control signals and electrical power. With a simple integration process, HeatPower modules can be integrated into a new-build vessel quickly and in accordance with the shipyard’s manufacturing schedule.
Minimal Maintenance Requirements
While the initial integration of energy-efficient technology must be simple and straightforward, maintenance requirements must also be kept to a minimum. If any onboard tech requires extensive or excessive maintenance, it can negatively affect the performance of the vessel, increase costs and disrupt established routes.
With this in mind, Climeon’s team of marine engineers have developed maritime ORC WHR technology that requires nominal onboard maintenance. Furthermore, a simple module design ensures that existing crewmembers can conduct onboard maintenance.
The use of the cloud-based Climeon Live system for automated monitoring and management enables the onboard Climeon ORC WHR systems to be remotely monitored by Climeon personnel, thus providing remote support to the crew, should it be required
Safe and Proven Application
The shipping industry has a number of regulations designed to enhance and maintain safety at sea and all onboard technology, equipment and materials must adhere to these sector-specific requirements.
While there are many potential innovations that could reduce shipping emissions, their safety and efficacy is yet to be proven.
Fortunately, Climeon’s HeatPower 300 Marine system is fully compliant with industry regulations, including SOLAS requirements. Project certified by ABS, DNV-GL and Lloyd’s Register, shipowners can be confident that Climeon technology can be used to increase the energy efficiency of their vessels while meeting environmental and safety requirements.
Voluntary EEDI Compliance?
Although the EEDI applies to most new-build ships, some vessels remain exempt from the Energy Efficiency Design Index due to their type, engine power etc. Despite this, many shipowners are opting to comply with the EEDI and obtain an EEDI rating, even when it isn’t mandated.
By doing so, shipowners can obtain a competitive advantage, as charterers are more likely to contract a vessel that has a requisite Attained EEDI in place. The increased energy efficiency associated with these ships can reduce operating costs, which offers charterers financial incentives to select EEDI compliant ships.
In addition to this, voluntarily complying with the EEDI ensures vessels will have the required certification if the Energy Efficiency Design Index is expanded again in the future. While a minority of vessels remain exempt from the EEDI, it is arguably a matter of time before the scope of the Index widens, thus mandating compliance across a wider spectrum of vessels.
Furthermore, the publication of technical efficiency in EU ports (Regulation (EU) 2015/757) places additional pressure on shipowners to enhance the design efficiency of vessels, regardless of whether a ship is subject to the EEDI regulations.
Future-Proofing Your Fleet with HeatPower 300 Marine
Climeon’s HeatPower 300 Marine system has been designed by experienced marine engineers to deliver optimal onboard performance. Already in use on board Maersk, Virgin Voyage’s, and Viking Line, our ORC waste heat recovery technology is helping to decarbonize the shipping industry and providing shipowners, shipyards and design houses with easy-to-integrate energy-efficient solutions.
Learn more about the Climeon HeatPower 300 Marine system now or contact our Maritime team today to start future-proofing your fleet.